More Engineering History

history of engineering

 

The history of engineering is long and checkered with examples of inventors seeking to make things work and solve technical problems. The credit for many of the innovations that are alive today goes to exactly those people.

In ancient times, engineering was viewed as magic and the practitioners were referred to as engineers. However, when the knew about the laws of physics, they realized that it was a science and could be applied to all aspects of life. The concepts of heat and sound, of mass and pressure, all had scientific explanation and application. So by the time the engineers understood the relationship between these things, it was more or less understood.

The knowledge of how the human body works and the understanding of how a chamber worked to produce steam, were basic concepts that could be computed. However, the deeper understanding of the relationship of human beings to each other and the world around them, was left to the engineers. This realization required a different way of living, which was essentially the outlook of the east from the west.

In the medieval period, craftsmen began to explore, what could be done with fire. The burning of wood required a source of heat and treasure to melt it down. This was the magic that the east had discovered, and it was secret kept very carefully, to not give it to the enemy easily. The discovery of alchemy gravitated the use of fire from hot stones and metals, which generated a threat to the old ways. However, it was only during the early 13th century that the principles of chemistry and thermodynamics, which science likes to call chemistry, were integrated from the east. The chemical method was used to render advise on chemical reactions by heating and stirring, hence the term chemical warfare.

Thus the quest for a way to heat and cool metal, in order to create more complex chemical reactions, led to the development of the chemical furnace, which was more efficient and smaller than the previous inventions. The chemical furnace was shaped like a brick furnace to take advantage of all the properties of heat, which include temperature, pressure, and mass. It was invented by André-Marie Bosch, a German chemical engineer and mathematician, in the 17th century.

Early chemical fuming dates back to approximately 2,300 years ago in China. During the same period, glass blowing, a much more common practice than today, was in use. The process involves heating glass into a liquid or a solid for use in art or for coloring and creating other textures. Early forms of glass are shown on carvings in church windows and on some pottery fragments. It was around the 11th century that glass blowing, by either opening up the glass and pouring liquid glass into the opening or using a glass pump, creating small bubbles in the glass that closed when the temperature of the liquid temperature exceeds the internal temperature of the glass, was developed. This was the earliest example of the art of glass blowing.

The primary use of heat the heat of the sun for Fuming is used for the preparation of Roman candles. These candles were filled with vegetable or animal fuel and slowly heated to produce a Chrysanthemum or a rose-petal specks and a bouquet of flowers. There were different methods of making these candles; flower dropping and filtration were common methods, which many are used today in interior waterproofing. Today, most types of commercial perfumes are made using synthetic processes that produce synthetic aroma and colorants.

Following Roman glass blowing and the chemical revolution, glass blowing was mechanized and improved. During this process, glass blowers invented a wide technique of stenciling blocks of color and shapes that were impossible to replicate. The development of improved techniques and equipment, along with the introduction of metal art, a form of multi-media, allowed glass artists to reproduce masterpieces once they were produced.

The art of glass blowing gave rise to another art form, Murano glass, which was specifically made and cultivated in Italy. It is still a secret knowledge to this day. Each color is individually prepared and colored. The production of Murano glass smashup requires seven days of cooling and it involves blowing large galleries of glass up to 130 feet wide and 35 feet high at its core.

The development of glass blowing and the supremacy of Murano glass earned it the reputation of immunity and durability. For this reason, glass blowers returned to Italy and opened up their own glass shops. They revolutionized the way glass was made in the coming centuries.

The mid-century modern history of glass blowing lead to the development of oil glass, which was blown over a mold to create objects and jewelry. Oil glass is still used to make some contemporary pieces of art and is also made to be colored. Several techniques were developed to get the best results from oil glass. First, good conditioned glass was blown over a mold made of clay to create interesting patterns and waves. The mold of the clay was designed to hold the glass object.