The Engineering of Architecture

The Engineering of Architecture

 

Imagine, that one day you discover something that completely identifies what architecture is. However, the very next day, a new idea might surface, such as: “Architecture is an art form.” I found myself on a tangent the other day trying to explain this. This’s my attempt at helping you to get synthesis of what architecture is now and what it has meant to writers, thinkers and artists over a period of time. It has as an effect, touched us on numerous levels.

So, what is architecture?

A. I believe that maybe one gets a better response if one is asked to articulate the word, Architecture, it is difficult to do. It requires a broad context and an intimate knowledge of the theories and practices that have shaped Architect’s thinking at this point in history. So, I’m not going to bother with that, that’s enough subject for now.

What is architecture?

A. The common answer is that something found in one place is termed architecture. It’s a definition that is close to the desired one but lacks the context and the texture.

How might you take this and create a picture of it?I. What is the largest building in the world?

• De oblitis dictae:When universally acknowledged as the largest building in the world.

• The Matter allergies MPA: stockpile of concrete, steel and glass.

Where is e.g: “okes to it”? Charitable Institute Mates of America, which foundations is formed in those places that are the most economically depressed.

This can become a little bit confusing as a list is improved and expanded upon. The purpose of this exercise is to translate the small details of one human society’s buildings into a general model of all Architect’s buildings.

What do these differences tell us?

• Architects are not monolithic.Many of them focus on a community such as Indianapolis architects or a specific cultural group and not on the general population crowd. These groups may be homogeneous or have a great variety of different cultures, religions, nationalities, humanua­ple socio-economic situations or even ambitions.

• Architects must be totally committed to the building process.There was a time when architect’s in the country didn’t even interact with the average person outside of the general’s property. Today, Public Architects represent in the general public millions of dollars worth of built projects!

Architect’s built structures reflect the area’s current way of life. The parts of it are, for example, often still made out of wood and all the furnishings are made out of wood. Often the old ways of building are used, though, so that what was once thought of as a form of architecture is now considered contemporary.

• An architect’s work is inherently a social process.The moment a worker in the building leaves, another comes to take his place. It’s an ongoing process.

• An architect offers the public something new.He works with his audience to transform their vision of a building’s future into reality.

So, given these differences, what do these points mean for an audience of today and tomorrow?

Architects Visit AltStar college Yard and wiresYard and wires

We are creatures of habit.Our brains are wired for pleasure.We’re all creatures of habit and enjoy what we do.Or, as CharlesBUTT said, “You’re in the business of design because design makes the world go around.”

We are creatures of habit and enjoy what we do.

Or, as CharlesBUTT said, “you’re in the business of design because design makes the world go around.”

We are creatures of habit and enjoy what we do.

Or, as CharlesBUTT said, “you’re in the business of design because design makes the world go around.”

We are creatures of habit and enjoy what we do.

Or, as CharlesBUTT said, “you’re in the business of design because design makes the world go around.”

Therefore, we look at Architecture in all aspects as “a lot of people do this and’t do that”. We also are creatures of habit and bend the rules in Google Street Viewings to get into buildings. Like people do with their cell phones. Our brains stretch.

In order to understand Architecture and design we have to know what is really important.

Who is the Architect?A. STORY. Where?)

______ autonomy plays a bow and arrow?This is demonstrated in home videos and commercials. How they go about this bet short search campaigns.

The Engineering of Welding

engineering of welding

 

Forming a bond is the end result of welding. In general, the process of assembling metal is to join it to another metal. Some welding metals, called ferrite, must be compressed in order to form a bond. The metal needs to be heat treated to cause the flow of the fusion to occur. It is the easiest process of all, which is why many perform this process with an old- fashion gas tungsten arc welding process. Other types of metals may need to be heated to a specific temperature to create the fusion.

Different types of metals can be bonded by a variety of strategies. Some are more difficult to bond, and a different method must be used in order to bond them. Once the metal has “plated” or must be rolled in order to assemble or modify. The form of the piece is also affected by the type of metal being bonded. Some forms of metal are more “crisscross” ( Counter- rotating ) while others may be more “arrow- shaped.” These metal shapes have specific properties that must be followed to retrieve the desired results. Heat treatments can be used on different kinds of metal. This is done by a variety of processes. Heat treatments are given to relieve the properties of metal and to improve its durability. Silicones can be used also, but this method is slower than the other processes. Using a lot of alloy can also be used to obtain better results, but it is a more costly way to handle these metal types. Heat treatments can be used to accomplish additional shaping results, so that the metal can be cut in a variety of geometries.

Specialty welding is a special way to form a bond or desired bond with a specific metal. They have many advantages, and they often agree with the rust proof methods. Preheating, hand-welding, magnets, and electric current welding are a few of the techniques used to bond the metal. If the quality of the metal is not suited to using specialty welding, many other methods are available. Specialty welding has been growing in demand by hobby, professional and commercial users, and certainly you will find some of these techniques in the trade books as well. Many of the newer techniques in the trade are being adopted by designers and producers of metal. Specialty welding has a variety of uses. Some of them are truly science experiments that are tried and true. The times when electricity and amperages were the most common are long gone. Nonetheless, they are still used across the board. Specialty welding has become a very specialized skill that has a ample amount of ability to be applied in fields that people use it in to produce sorely needed products for the market. This type of welding is remarkable in that it allows metal to be formed mechanically to remove narrow defects in the raw metal. Specialty welding can create the same kind of bond identical directly from the metal without adhesives or any such chemicals.

When looking at the different types of welding applications, one will need to decide which type of metal that will be welded. If it is an alloy or stainless metal, stainless steel can only be welded by either policeman- Peak Cable or a Brook implement. If it is stainless or nickel alloys, it may be possible to weld these metals with any of the other types of welding processes. That being said, there are still many applications and different kinds of welding techniques that such welding can be applied to. The process of welding looks pretty much the same throughout the world of the welding art. They are three basic types of welding machine and that is automatic, manual, and specialty machines. The following is a listing of those.

Automatic Wireformer: This type of equipment lets them produce a continuous, large volume of impregnated wire from a controlled atmosphere furnace. This power tool comes with many features

Manually Interface Wire Formers: These are available in a variety of sizes, possibilities, and trimmings.

Industrial Spring Tungsten Operated Wire Grinder Techniques: This is one of the powerful metal grinding methods your industry will need. It is rivals junkyard grinders, but it is very precise.

Specialty Wire Grinder: This machine comes equipped with a variety of accessories, which makes it very versatile. These accessories are ideal for producing small volumes of sheet metal

Specialty Wire Grinder: This is ideal for grinding stainless, nonferrous, and non- syndicate metals.

It is possible to hire a wire derrick to set up a new joint or existing welding line of welds. Some big industries have a separate department to manage all of the welding that is completed in the building.

Managing Research and Development For New Engineering Products

Research and Development

 

Technology is changing the world and businesses need to keep up. Research and development is just as important to a new product-and to the success of that product. Whether it’s a new product or a new service, it’s important to get the research and development right or the rest of the business can crash.

Whether it’s an established product or a new one, companies are always facing the challenge of making new products work and being able to capture market share and stay ahead of the competition. So, how does a company go about researching new products?

Companies rely on a variety of tools to conduct R&D, and many of these tools are available to clients for free, such asogo advent calendar Google Day planner. These cost a little to set up and maintain, but the benefits they bring can be incredible.

Sometimes, a company will hire an outside contractor like for floor removal to look over their designs and manufacturing, either to give them a second look at what they are creating or if they need to make changes. This and other creative options are sometimes the only option when an R&D department cannot keep up with the demands of the business. R&D can take on many new projects from other companies who are looking to make an impact on the market and broaden their market market reach. Sometimes though, it may be good to look at the new products from different angles before jumping on board, giving your company time to make sure the idea is not just a pipe dream.

While your research and development department may have a great opportunity to meet new global clients in a variety of markets, they may need to turn their attention to their own operations and processes when it comes to making a proven product. This is why management often chooses to have R&D managers make important decisions with Responsibility, Power, Action and charities, focusing on programs that can direct the research towards what is needed now. Research and Development is powerful, but sometimes can be a significant undertaking. Here are the top three steps to get you and your ideas off the ground:

Step One: Make sure the idea or idea is a proven one-and can be monetized. While it’s exciting to share a new idea, when it’s not backed by research and potentially proves to not be financially successful you can lose traction and possibly lose the business as well. Once products or services are proven, while management is seeing results, they are realizing that it’s a bigger picture-not just a new product. So, I always point out to clients that it’s important to actually conduct research to ensure that the idea is as they want it to be.

Step Two: Schedule a plan with the research team-it’s often surprising to see a corporation carrying out research as if it’s not really interactive. Often looking at the edges of science may be exciting and provide great incentive to a particular group of individuals, but they often miss a great opportunity. The research process isn’t as easy as just sampling a few ideas and then letting the business know what they’re up, but it’s important to find a team of passionate participants who are committed to contributing and offering ideas for issues covered by research to make things so that initial research and interaction is not just a conflict in a conflict.

Step Three: Make decisions quickly and don’t delay the idea or the company until everything is participants. Sometimes it’s easy to let ideas sit and thoughts over-and over until all of the participants think they’ve found the perfect idea or are wide open to anything else that comes along. Hopefully, the research will uncover that the original idea may not be the right one-it’s possible and recommend other ideas and creative solutions. If the idea causes a problem then the research makes it easier to solve the company’s problem.

So, if you’ve been resistant to something you thought was great but there was no research backing it up, it’s time to revamp your view of the company. Yes, it’s important to research new and exciting ideas to bring them to the company’s attention but only if this research aligns with the company’s mission and cultural beliefs. Take the time to go to events, speak with your business partners and wonderful colleagues-they can be great resources to help guide your decisions and guide trust in your company’s future.

The Engineering of Sports Stadiums

 

The Engineering of Sports Stadiums

Overview

The engineering of sports has been one of the most fascinating experiences. From as early as Ancient times, sports stadium were built with much creativity, resources, and effort. Many authors have gone into details to explain the planning of the major stadiums, and the maintenance of the same. This article will explain the engineering of sports stadium with a major focus in the US.

Why Does It Matter

A question to investigate is why the engineering of sports stadium matter. The fact is that stadiums are unique structures. In some places, structures are communal, and they carry out a lot of symbolism. Therefore, the decision to build or expand a stadium is a very critical decision and must be done after a careful deliberation.

Institutions, including sports bodies, have to think about the diversification of their sources of revenue. Like other commercial entities, the sports activities have to be sustainable in terms of paying bills and the labor economics. The question then becomes how best to be financially independent, without burdening the club with a lot of loans as well as a lot of borrowed money. Thus, the engineering of a stadium is a heavy and long-term invest which can help a club in solving the major problems that clubs face.

Like in a mainstream business, the sports stadium does not have to be a single function, but rather, it can be a multi-purpose stadium. For example, today, a stadium can be used to host a rock event, and that can be a good way of earning an income. An increasing number of stadiums have hosted major concerts which have played an important role in injecting the funds to the clubs.

The aesthetics of the club does matter a lot when it comes to creating memories and at the same time, retaining and attracting fans. Of course, the performance of the club does matter, and so is the stadium. Fans have a tendency of getting mesmerized with big stadiums, and they want to be associated with such clubs. This is more so in the era of video and photography. It should be noted that some events are watched from all over the world, and how the stadium looks like or is presented matters a lot when it comes to attracting viewership.

Technology plays a critical role in ensuring that the football fields are outstanding and not only that, that they will offer the football fans an optimal experience. In stadiums, the requirements for lighting are far much higher, and they take a fortune to invest in. But they carry a high rate of return on investment as more people attend events and people looking for venues choose such a stadium. The good thing with technology is that, every year, it tends to become better and cheaper, and this

The following is an ideal go to lighting engineering in stadiums:

­-Lights png: Eg the mecree model

-Wattage: 1000 W Led is very ideal for illuminance

-Glare: Especially in this era of 4K TV

-Precise lighting control

-The need to look at the warranty of the product offered

The products sourced for lighting should have a long-lifespan. This is because making a replacement of the same can be very expensive. Therefore, the issue of lighting should be sorted out as early as possible in order to avoid making costly decisions.

It should be noted that the lighting that the stadium has chosen should meet the needs of the personnel too. It is good to bear in mind that the employees are working in the stadium full time, and they should be given the ideal opportunity to work. The employees should be allowed to work in a comfortable place.

A major factor in the engineering of sports stadium is the issue of safety. Today, the stadiums face a number of safety threats, some were very prominent in the past times, and others are emerging. One of the oldest threats to the safety of stadiums is fires. The following are the major incidences of fires in stadiums in the US:

-A football stadium at the University of Florida was being maintained by a number of employees, one of them being a tractor driver. In one such maintenance routines, a tractor caught fire, but no one was injured in the events.

-In December 2019, Texas Rangers caught fire. The fire department stated that the fire affected the area for a whopping 37 minutes. It was reported that some crates containing materials caught fire, and the fire was almost ravaging the stadium. By the time of the event of the fire, the stadium was under construction.

Citi Field, which hosts the Mets caught fire when the players were away. The good thing was in this event was that there was an automatic activation of the sprinklers and the flames were put off. By that time, the Mets had gone to Atlanta. 60 fire fighters responded to the event and were able to manage the situation.

Having stated that, the managements of stadiums must lay down concrete measures in order to ensure that the fires in stadiums can be prevented from the word go.  This is one of the reason why only a clear purse or clear bag is allowed into sports stadiums.

An emerging problem is that large stadiums have attracted cases of terrorism. This is more so from the year 1998. The engineering of stadiums include the need to ensure that the stadiums do not have materials which are highly flammable as this would translate to more injuries and fatalities. Another strategy that stadiums use is to ensure that the engineering of the sports bears in mind that there should be enough emergency exits in the case of an attack. In many cases, an attack in a stadium leads to a stampede which leads to more injuries and fatalities.

Though rare, there are few cases where food and water also happens. The most common cases are about pathogens as well as poison. Though far-fetched, the biological weapons can have a very big impact on the stadiums. There is nothing much that engineering can do in such cases. The best thing that an engineer can do is to make sure that water supplies are protected in the best way possible.

Stadiums stand to lose a lot from theft as well as vandalism. As a matter of fact, some thieves are able to conduct transactions that they are not allowed to. If this continues for a very long time, it threatens the financial health of the stadium. In some cases, theft and vandalism arrests the development agenda of a sports stadium.

Notable Examples in the US

Michigan Stadium

For example, the Michigan Stadium (owned by the University of Michigan), is one of the most iconic stadiums in the US and it is known for its magnificence. It is the largest sports stadium in the country, and comes second in the entire world in terms of size. It has hosted memorable events including a game between Manchester United and Real Madrid. If one can afford it, one is allowed to have a wedding at the Michigan Stadium. Visitors are allowed to have tours at the stadium. There are plans in place to make drastic improvements of the current stadium in order to give the visitors, players, and fans, an even better experience.

Beaver Stadium

Penn State holds that football is a part and parcel of its culture. The state has seen a lot of changes over the years as far as the football experience is concerned. One of the most significant and observable achievements of the state is the construction and engineering of the Beaver Stadium.

Recently, a professional by the name Stahl Sheaffer, visited the stadium with a multi-disciplinary team including a number of roofing consultants. The team was seeking to identify mechanical, structural, and functional witnesses facing the stadium. The team was seeking to do an upgrade and repair in order to make it more comfortable for the attendants.

The changes that the team was looking at include the following: cracks, joint failures, rusty and old parts, and water infiltration. Most of that effort was about establishing if the engineering was dome right, and if there are concerns concerning the same.

Other changes were initiated by students from Penn State engineering. The students noted that football fans face a lot of conflict in lines, the restrooms, and the parking. The team felt that it is better to encourage the fans to come and watch the game live, rather than using their TVs. The students decided to do a number of modifications including the following:

-Ensuring that there is less time that is taken at the concessions stand

-The need to improve the game experience of every one

-Improving the interactions between the attendants and the customers

-When there is a line, it should be pleasurable and enjoyable in the waiting room

-Reducing the waiting time in the restroom, this is more so when it comes to the women restroom.

Tiger Stadium

Tiger Stadium, Detroit, could as well be termed as the history of baseball in Detroit. As a matter of fact, the stadium can boast of a century of baseball. The stadium has hosted numerous other events including concerts. The stadium was demolished in 1999 in order to make room for further space, and at the same time, other facilities were built at the ground. The stadium has been a major reference when it comes to the baseball discourse across the country.

Lessons From Europe

The US can learn a lot from its counterpart the UK and the rest of Europe, about sports administration in general, and the engineering of sports in particular. The following are important lessons that Americans can learn from the UK as far as sports are concerned:

-Arsene Wenger is as perfect example par excellence on how a team can fund-raise to build a stadium, and be able to pay the loans in a considerable amount of time. In order to build the Emirates Stadium, Arsenal faced many challenges, including the problem of relocating the neighbors, and with the construction of the new stadium, such problems were solved. Most importantly, the coach ensured that the engineering of the stadium was done right, and that it would come with the right quality.

-Arsene Wenger was so influential in the economics of building the Emirates Stadium that when the banks were funding the stadium, they stated that he should accept a long-term contract with the club, and they were not ready to deal with someone else. The financiers had a lot of trust in the coach.

-The engineering of Allianz Arena, Munich, Germany, is one of the best examples of product engineering. The club boasts a capacity of 66, 000, quite a great achievement and a source of pride. The engineering was done by Alpine as well as Herzog de Meuron Architects, a reputable engineering firm in its own right. Allianz Arena has the design of a bowl, and a very clear view from the seats.

-The early 20th century saw one of the most prolific engineers in Architect Archibald Leitch, and the Old Trafford was constructed by this eminent person. The engineer started in building factories, and therefore, he was in the best position to build stadiums in a fast and cheap way. At that time, clubs did not have a lot of money, and they were always looking for budget conscious solutions, and the engineer offered just that. A journalist described the stadium as the most remarkable, the most handsomest, and the most spacious.

Conclusion

The construction and engineering is a very big decision to make. It requires a lot of consultation, and a lot of collaboration, from the beginning to the end. It is a decision that should take time. The most critical thing is to ensure that the clubs can seek solutions which are affordable and sustainable; solutions which are going are not going to bring in unnecessary logistic and financial burden. Most importantly, the fans should be involved in every stage of the way.

The Engineering of How Gutters Work?

The Engineering of How Gutters Work

 

We seem them every day and probably never stop to think about gutters. Why do we need to fit gutters to our houses? why not just let the rain fall straight off the roof onto the ground below?

The engineering of how gutters work is a complex topic and great amounts of thought are given to angles of the roof and dimensions of the gutter to provide optimum drainage. Houses generally need gutters for a variety of reasons which we will explore in this article`. They have been around since the Roman times and will be around for the foreseeable future.

History of Gutters

Roman

The Romans brought systems for managing rainwater when they invaded Britain. After the fall of the Roman Empire that technology was once again lost by the population of Britain, until it was reintroduced by the Normans.

In 1240 King Henry wanted the insides and outsides of the Tower of London “whitened”as was the custom of the day. He subsequently asked for the towers lead guttering to be extended, so that rainwater would not spoil the walls.

Saxons

In the time of the Saxons buildings were erected with large roofs that overhung the walls, so that water would fall onto the ground, well clear of the houses. Pretty much the same method as was used in thatched cottages. The Saxons were a germanic people that settled in the South-East of England and spread outwards across the rest of England. On large buildings like cathedrals the architects used lead parapet gutter that fed into large Gargoyles. When the monasteries were dissolved, this had a side effect of leaving lots of lead to be recycled into secular building use. Poorer people used wooden gutters or wooden gutters lined with lead.

The Industrial Revolution

When they built the innovative Crystal Palace, the wooden beams that spanned the space between roof girders had a deep channel cut into the top to serve as a gutter. These were called Paxton Gutters, named after the architect, Joseph Paxton.

With the industrial revolution there came better ways of casting iron and the railways allowed these heavy cast iron gutters to be transported to building sites. The new cities built at the time had to be made compact and this increased the need for gutters that channeled the rainwater In 1849 proposed a sewerage system for London with houses having gutter connected to downpipes which fed the rainwater into the sewers. By the 1870s all buildings were built with gutters and downpipes.

Various materials were used for the construction of these rainwater disposal systems.

Types of Materials used in Construction

Cast iron

Cast iron systems first appeared in the latter part of the 18th century as an alternative to the previous lead systems.Using cast iron made mass production possible They were a better solution than the previous wood gutters with lead linings. They were much easier to install and became the standard solution. Where historic buildings are being restored they still sometimes use Cast iron, but often these days they will substitute aluminium that is made to the same design.

UPVC

Today, in the Uk most guttering now made using PVC. This material was first introduced in specialist systems in the 1930s and use grew rapidly till by the 1950s it was becoming common. By 1970 some 60% of all rainwater systems were constructed of PVC.

PVC is simple to instal, lightweight, and has a predicted lifespan of 60 years. The primary disadvantage is its expansion. PVC will expand 7.2mm within its end stops if temperatures of −5 C to 25 C occur. A general rule is that a 4″gutter with a 2.7″downpipe will drain a 600 sq ft roof.

Stainless Steel

Higher quality stainless steel systems have been introduced with superior looks, greater durability, amd resistance to corrosion.

Seamless Gutters

Seamless gutters are manufactured on site by specialist staff. They can be made to suit individual building configurations with a roll forming machine. It typically has a lifespan of 30 years,

Zinc

Another alternative in the UK is zinc covered mild steel. This is corrosive resistant.

Concrete Gutters

Concrete Gutters (aka Finlock gutters) were common in the 1950s and 1960s. They can be fitted to a variety of building types. They mainly were used at times when other materials were in short supply. They are not an ideal solution and problems abound.

How Much Water Can You Collect From Your Roof?

The roof of a modest house can collect large amounts of water when it rains. This water has to go somewhere and it can either be allowed to cause damage or can be used constructively. This is one of the purposes of guttering.

There are many uses that you can put the water you collect to. It can be used for watering the garden and for cleaning. With the right kind of filtering equipment it can even be used fro a drinking water supply. You roof is the perfect water collector surface.

The formula that you can use for calculating how much water you can gather from your roof is

Gallons collected per inch of rainfall ≈ 0.62 • total collecting area of roof in square feet

So for a house with 1,000 sq ft of space, you retrieve 0.62 x 1,000 = 620 gallons of water each time that you get one inch of rain. With two inches of rain you can collect 1,240 gallons of FREE water.

Rainwater and the Foundations of Your House

Now we will look at the other side of the equation. We have seen how much valuable water you can collect free when it rains, but what happens if you are not collecting it and you have no guttering system?

If you have inadequate ways of driving water away from your property then your garden can sometimes turn into a swamp every time it rains. All the water we mentioned in the last section not only doesn’t get used but instead it is just dumped onto your garden. This water can do a lot of damage to the foundations of your home. Maybe you will not see a problem for a year or two, maybe not five years, but at some stage damage will appear, and this can be very expensive to fix.

If your have a system of gutters and downpipes channeling this water then this problem can be avoided and your garden will no longer be a muddy swamp. You need to think out where this water is going to go.

Options for diverting rainwater from your roof

Sewerage System

The most obvious solution is to connect up your downpipes to the same system that takes away your waste water from inside the house. The water is then taken well away from your house and eventually will make its way through the sewerage system into the ocean.

Rain Barrels

If you want to take advantage of this free water supply that rainwater provides, then you need a system of channeling the downpipes into your water storage barrels. A Barrel to store the water will cost around $50 and you will need to create some sort of filter to stop debris flowing into the barrel. A simple system will just have one barrel with a tap at the bottom, so you can get the water out of the barrel. You also need to buy or make the filtering system.

What happens if you have more rain that your requirements for water to irrigate the garden? If you find the barrel is overflowing then you have options. You can either connect up a second (a subsequent) barrels so the first will overflow into the second and so on. You may instead choose to link the overflow pipe to an underground pipe that takes the excess water outside of your property to the gutter in the road outside.

Should you want to use the water for drinking the system becomes much more complex in order to maintain the purity and purify the water.

Dry Well

Another solution is to link up the downspouts to a pipe that feeds the excess water from the roof into a dry well. This is a dry bottomless barrel that is surrounded by gravel and other porous material so that water that flows into the well filters away through the gravel back into the soil. This should be placed well away from the house ideally down hill.

Rainwater Harvesting Systems

Rainwater Barrels, Rainwater tanks, Water Butts, are containers for storing water that has been harvested from roofs via gutters and downpipes.. This is sometimes called a rainwater harvesting system. As we have seen earlier, just one inch of rain can produce 640 gallons of water to be harvested for a 1000 sq ft roof area.

Having such a system allows the water collected to be used for activities that do not require drinking water quality. This is done for environmental reasons or sometimes to reduce costs of water purchased from your water supplier.

In some parts of the world water is collected during the rainy season for subsequent use in the more arid seasons of the year.

This may be a solution for providing drinking water, with proper filtration and maintenance, but I will not go in to this in this article. It is a more specialist topic. We will concentrate on storing water that is not for human consumption.

Water Tanks

Water tanks connected up to gutters and downpipes can be a very efficient way of managing water on your property. First off the tanks should be constructed from an opaque material so that “algae blooms”are not encouraged. Materials could include Polyethylene, Concrete, Galvanized Steel, as well as fiberglass and stainless steel. These materials are both rust and chemical resistant. virtually all steel rainwater tanks are equipped with a plastic lining to prolong the working life of the tank.

Typically tanks are covered and include screened inlets which stop insects, debris, animals, and and bird droppings.

Reasons to install Gutters

If your home does not already have gutters, you may think about cutting corners and not installing them. This is a big mistake as various things will happen:

Siding damage

No gutters means that water will drain straight off your roof and down the side of the house. Ultimately it will start to pool around the foundations of the hose and cause potential damage., This will mean that the debris filled water from your roof will pour down and leave debris on places it touches enroute. If your house has sidings they will get stained, dirty, and if wooden, be subject to rot.

Flooding

Once again I refer to the vast amount of water that your roof can attract. Hundreds of gallons of water pouring straight off your roof like a waterfall. This will generate a lot of pressure on the foundations and will carve its way through flower beds and other garden features. If your house has a basement then it may well get flooded or at the very least attract mould.

Erosion

Houses built on slopes will see the waterfall of water flooding onto the soil start to carry it away every time it rains. Gradually eroding the soil and dropping the ground level, with consequent impact on the foundations.

Final Thoughts on Guttering

We have seen that gutters Salem Oregon, the attached downpipes and the facilities for carrying off the water are all part of an integrated system that is put in place to protect your home, securing the integrity of the foundations and stopping your garden turning into a muddy swamp every time it rains.

Water is a powerful force as we can see from the Grand Canyon, which was carved from water over 6 million years, The daily flow of water from a house without gutters can do significant damage if no action is taken. By not having gutter, you are also losing the oportunity to harvest rainwater, a resource that is going to be particularly valuable in the future.

The Engineering Behind Demolition

demolition engineering

 

In the construction world, it is often necessary to demolish old buildings, either because they are no longer in good condition, an accident has occurred that has endangered the building’s stability, or because space is needed to carry out the construction of a new building.

The demolitions can be both total and partial, depending on whether part of the existing infrastructure is to be reused or conserved or if the structure is to be completely eliminated. In any case, different methods can be used to demolish a building. Among the most common are the following:

  • Excavators
  • Traditional methods
  • Bulldozers
  • Wrecking balls
  • Cranes
  • Hydraulic shears
  • Controlled explosions and implosions.

Usually, these demolition activities are regulated. Only highly qualified personnel can carry out these tasks, not only because of the danger that the fact of demolishing an infrastructure represents but also because methodologies are used that require specialized knowledge in this area.

What types of demolitions exist?

There are different types of methods by which infrastructure can be demolished or demolished, and the choice of one or the other will depend on the conditions of the infrastructure, its location, its size, and the reasons why it is being demolished.

The process of demolishing a building can be very complex or straightforward, depending mainly on the size of the demolished building. This is why not all demolitions are done in the same way.

Demolition is something specific to each building, its situation, and its materials. Demolitions require specific planning of the works to be carried out for each case. It will be necessary to make cuts in the facilities, fences of the work, and disassembly of certain parts.

We will also have to foresee the fall of debris and the classification of the waste that will be generated. All of this is collected in a demolition project where the commercial demolition contractors will choose the most suitable for each case from among the types of demolition.

When we talk about types of demolitions, we understand that there are several different ways to carry out a demolition process.

We can divide the demolitions into different types, which we will see below.

Shock demolitions

They are the least controlled but the fastest and cheapest. Naturally, they are used when there is no danger of damaging the surrounding area, either in the entire building to be demolished or in part of it. Usually, suspended masses of cables are used as pendulums that hit the factory.

This requires great dexterity from the operator, not only to hit properly but also to control roll. Heavier cylinders are sometimes dropped to demolish floors and pavements with their shock. It is an efficient but not very controllable system with which you generate a lot of noise.

Mechanical demolitions

Mechanical demolitions are currently the most common. They are carried out mainly for total demolitions or partial demolitions of large areas. They are those that use machinery to effect breaks. They can be placed on tracks, allowing greater mobility around the work and access to difficult areas.

This type of demolition involves the use of heavy machinery and supporting equipment such as robots or backhoes to which specific elements and tools for demolition have been implemented.

Percussion hammers with steel heads of different sizes are usually used, allowing you to better adapt to each area. Tweezers are also used that can even incorporate shears to cut the steel bars from the concrete.

The pliers are handy for working at heights from which falling debris can cause problems as they are capable of holding the cut pieces.

Mechanical demolitions dramatically increase the speed of demolition and, provided they are carried out correctly, and following the safety regulations, it is an almost entirely risk-free type of demolition.

To carry out a mechanical demolition, a large workspace is usually necessary, as well as specific pre and post preparations. In general, these systems are much more controllable, and with adequate specialization, they achieve demolition of particular areas without hardly affecting other buildings.

Traditional demolitions

This type of demolition is mainly used in smaller projects or partial demolitions. Since the objective is to preserve part of the structural elements, such as walls or dividing walls, it does not work with heavy machinery but rather employs qualified labor and uses traditional techniques and tools.

Although this type of demolition requires more work time, it also allows a more specific process. These processes will enable differentiating the elements that will be demolished from those that must be maintained.

Two phases usually take place. In the first, hydraulic hammers, pliers and shears are used to carry out the demolitions. In the second, the smallest debris is removed using agile machines and tools.

Demolitions in case of sinister or emergencies

This type of demolition takes place when there is an accident such as floods, fires, tornadoes, or any other phenomenon that can cause structural damage to buildings. They require a rapid response to emergencies and a highly specialized team.

In a disaster situation, the objective is to minimize the damage as much as possible and promote the affected area’s speedy recovery.

Cases that require specific systems

For the most massive concrete structures, perforations are used to introduce hydraulic jacks or expanding mortars. This makes it possible to ensure the fracture that will occur and then move on to other demolition systems.

When you have to demolish a large, isolated building, you can use explosives that, through proper study, ensure complete demolition and that the debris will be well stacked. In minor cases, the commercial demolition contractors may use cables to pull or shovels to push to cause the building’s general instability. Still, the fall of debris will be less controlled.

Whatever the type of demolition used, it must pay attention to both waste management with special attention to asbestos and the impact it will have on the surrounding areas, so it must be carefully studied.

demolition engineering equipment

What kind of specialized machinery is used in a demolition?

When we are going to carry out the demolition, we must bear in mind that we also have to deal with specific demolition machinery as well as specialized demolition machines.

However, there are different works with specialized machinery that must be taken into account before:

Reinforced concrete

On the one hand, there is the demolition of reinforced concrete. You will need really heavy machinery to move all this debris. Here we highlight the excavators and waste handling machines to throw the cement and transport it to clean the demolishing area.

Industrial demolition

On the other hand, in industrial demolition, you will also need heavy machinery while you will be moving heavy items, especially iron and steel. Therefore, the machinery must also be heavy and resistant to carry these elements.

Technical demolition

As for technical demolition, it is a process that is carried out in different constructions and always looking for a minimum acoustic and dirt impact. It is carried out with specialized and modern machines.

Mechanical demolition

Mechanical demolition is the most common and is carried out for total or partial demolition of large areas. These demolitions involve the use of heavy machinery and different load-bearing equipment such as robots or backhoes with elements included and specific tools for demolition.

These demolitions increase the process’s speed, provided they are carried out correctly under the relevant safety regulations, being demolitions that hardly present risks. Of course, you will need large workspaces and previous and subsequent forecasts.

Manual demolition

On the other hand, a manual demolition is one that is carried out in smaller projects or partial demolitions. Its purpose is to preserve part of the structural elements, so heavy machinery is not used. Instead, it is a skilled workforce with different techniques and traditional tools.

And it is true that these demolitions are more durable, but they also determine a more specific process where it is possible to differentiate the elements that must be demolished and those that must be maintained.

Indoor demolitions

Regarding the demolitions of floors, walls, and stairs indoors, the machinery is more specific and less heavy since the force used is not so demanding.

Demolitions with explosives

The opposite occurs with blasting, where you need elements such as explosives for the demolition to be efficient. And finally, the scrapping of metal structures is also carried out with resistant machines to finish off these pieces.

In short, depending on the type of demolition you are carrying out, you will need some demolition tools or others. It is important to remember that these demolitions must be carried out by properly trained and specialized personnel. This will reduce the risks to the maximum (accidents, environmental damage, incorrect demolitions). The best way to ensure this is by hiring a team of commercial demolition contractors.

What steps must you take to carry out a demolition?

Demolition can be defined as a “reverse process to Construction” To be taken into account; There are several types of demolition with different aspects and classifications.

Ultimately, it consists of the demolition of Constructions and Constructive Elements until the complete elimination, buildings, and pavements, roads, sidewalks, factories, or any other necessary.

In general, Demolition works include the following phases:

  1. Preliminary work: Cuts of facilities and connections, Preparation, fencing, signaling, and protection of the entire work area.
  2. Disassembly or Fragmentation: of the factories that make up the work.
  3. Classification and Removal of Materials: To approved centers for their Management.

There are no two equal Demolitions since each work may have different peculiarities that must be taken into account in each phase; these peculiarities will mark the limitations and conditions and take into account both in the works before starting the work, during and at the finish the Demolition process.

Before starting any Demolition work, the commercial demolition contractors must carefully study its correct execution and the system to be used. The essential aspects to analyze before starting the work are:

  • The Demolition Method to be used.
  • The Stages that we will have in its execution.
  • The stability of the building to be demolished as it is going to ban is which will define the shoring and formwork that we will need to make to ensure the safety of the work operators.
  • The stability of the construction elements that are not going to be demolished, in the case of a Partial Demolition. As well as the security elements that must be placed, so that everything is secured, not only the building that we are demolishing but also the buildings around or adjoining.
  • It may be necessary to maintain or replace the services or facilities that are affected by the demolition work.
  • Have well indicated the Means of evacuation and the areas for dumping debris or materials from the demolition.
  • Planning and Organization of the work to be done.
  • The control that we must carry out as the demolition works progress.
  • Plan and Management of the waste generated during the building demolition works.
  • Most importantly, the Health and Safety measures to be carried out throughout the work.

By hiring a team of commercial demolition contractors, you can rest assured that the entire process will be carried out correctly. This is because you will have adequately trained personnel and have all the necessary equipment to carry out the infrastructure’s demolition without any inconvenience.

In addition, commercial demolition contractors usually keep up-to-date on all current laws, which will save you from headaches later.

what to do with demolition waste

What do you do with demolition waste?

As you can assume, when infrastructure is demolished, regardless of the type of demolition that is carried out, a large amount of waste will be generated. These wastes must be transported and deposited in the corresponding landfills.

These landfills must be approved to fulfill this purpose; if not, it is possible to face environmental damage fines. Likewise, several of these residuals can be recycled and depending on current legislation. All of the residuals that can be reused must be taken to recycling centers for proper processing.

When starting the industrial cleaning process and the subsequent decontamination of floors, in general, we must adhere to the following general guidelines:

  1. The first step we have to take is to request a permit from the corresponding administration to place a rubble container on the public highway and pay the relevant municipal fees.
  2. Once the bag or said container is full, the team of operators has to come with the necessary machinery to move it to the authorized point of storage and waste collection in the town where the demolition took place.
  3. Once these wastes have been eliminated, the next step is to clean and disinfect the area of ​​possible contaminating remains that could have come off as a result of our work. For this, as we tell you, it seems very necessary to put industrial cleaning in commercial demolition contractors’ hands.
  4. In these authorized points, debris and waste are classified for subsequent treatment and recycling. According to what the legislation dictates in each case. It is vitally important that we follow the indicated procedure responsibly, as we will be contributing to the protection of the environment and our natural spaces.

Many cities are faced with the problem of illegally dumping rubble in public spaces. This causes dirt and contamination and is harmful to nature, turning these spaces into unhealthy spots, with its serious risk.

Hence the importance of removing debris responsibly. It is vital to follow each of the steps set by the corresponding regulations. In any case, the best way to be sure of complying with all regulations and carrying out an adequate partial or total demolition process is to hire commercial demolition contractors. These professional teams will do everything necessary to carry out these tasks in the most suitable way, reducing the risks to the life of the population and the environment to a minimum.

The Engineering Behind Building a Skyscraper

skyscraper engineering

 

Skyscrapers are products of civil engineering. Experts are predicting that buildings will go over 3200 feet high. And there could be a one-mile skyscraper by 2050. Planners are also predicting over 6 billion people will be living in the city.

In fact, California and Stanislaus County Project Management is coming up with plans to accommodate more people in the cities thanks to brilliant skyscraper engineering.

One classic skyscraper is the New York Empire State Building. The slender 96-story building was built in the 20th century and overlooks Central Park. But what is impressive is the footprints at the ground level.

Another iconic landmark is the Skidmore, Owings & Merril. According to the structural engineer (Bill Baker), this building will stand the test of time.

So, how do engineers make more for less?

The design and construction of skyscrapers

One concept about skyscraper engineering is that a building must support its weight. In addition to that, it must protect the occupants from fire and should resist winds. Yet, the skyscraper should provide a comfortable climate, and all floors must be accessible.

The basic design

Given the high cost of construction, skyscraper engineering ensures there is no single chance of failure. The building should be in a position to resist all loadings. But if it fails, there’s a question of lack of foresight.

One aspect of skyscraper engineering is the special substructure. The pit that holds the substructure must go all the way to bedrock. But first, the topsoil must be removed to build a foundation.

Loading and vibration

One fascinating fact about skyscraper engineering is that the weight of the building comes from the material itself. From a technical perspective, the weight of the structure should be greater than the weight of the furniture, people, etc. The vertical tubes can come in different categories like:

  • Sheer walls
  • A tube design
  • Steel frames
  • Concrete cores

Another important aspect of engineering is the wind loading speed. Since the wind pressure increases with weight, tall buildings come with live or dead loads. Other factors that affect the vertical and horizontal load come from unpredictable sources like an earthquake.

Steel frame

This is a classic concept in skyscraper engineering. It entails a large steel box with a few boxes inside. Because steel is a strong material, the skyscraper can be built with vertical and horizontal support throughout. While this may look like a simple method, it has drawbacks.

More material is needed to reduce the distance between the support members. And this is quite uneconomic for tall buildings that go beyond 40 stories. Of course, the unused floor spaces can be reduced using more steel.

Steel offers superior strength because it’s an alloy of iron and carbon. And it’s no wonder it’s used in large scale construction. Steel is resilient, strong, and durable. In the late 1960s, a renowned engineer of Bengali descent came up with a formula that allows skyscrapers to reach a new height.

Tubular design

Fazlur Khan is believed to be the father of the tubular design of skyscrapers. He first introduced the concept while working at Merrill’s Chicago Office and Skidmore Owings. And any skyscraper that was introduced after 1960 used the same skyscraper engineering principles.

According to Khan, a framed tube is a simple design that can be adapted to circular, square, rectangular, and freeform shapes. His construction engineering principles further categorized the design into two:

  • Braced tube / Trussed tube design
  • Bundled tube

The braced tube features spaced exterior columns while the bundled tube was tied together to resist lateral forces. For example, the Willis Tower in Chicago used the bundled tube design by using tubes of different heights. Keep in mind that the tube units can have different shapes and can be bundled into different units.

But the beauty of Khan’s engineering is that it used concrete or steel to reach lofty heights. More interestingly, the composite of concrete or steel could reach a height of 828 meters. According to Khan, the amount of steel used to create the tubular design is half that of the steel frame.

Shear walls

Shear walls are strong and have high stiffness. They can support gravity loads and can resist horizontal loads. And that’s why they are unique in skyscraper engineering applications. So, what’s a sheer wall?

From a skyscraper engineering perspective, sheer walls can resist the axial load and any movement induced by the lateral load. In simple terms, a sheer wall increases the rigidity for load resistance.

In the construction of skyscrapers, the shear walls can be seen as vertical elements for resisting loads introduced by earthquakes and wind. This explains why the walls come in different shapes like irregular cores or rectangular shapes.

Over the last few years, the use of shear walls in skyscraper engineering has gained popularity – for good reasons. They are common in the construction of a service apartment or office blocks. And this system is effective as it allows for the construction of a 35-story building.

From a statistical standpoint, no building with shear walls has ever collapsed due to elements like an earthquake or strong winds.

Reinforced concrete (RC) Shear Walls

Reinforced concrete walls start from the foundation and go all the way to the height of the building. In one statement made by structural engineer Mark Fintel – you cannot have a strong building that can withstand earthquakes without RC sheer walls. Another important thing to note is that sheer walls must be symmetrical to reduce the ill-effects of twists in buildings.

Confusing the wind

In the real world, you may be wondering what prevents the skyscrapers from swaying. It’s all about taming the wind. If you happen to check a building like the Grand Hyatt on a windy day, you may notice the skyscraper creaks a bit when the wind moves back and forth. But this is not a structural problem.

In any skyscraper engineering, the wind has been an important factor to consider. Since the first skyscraper was opened in the late 1880s, engineers have to think about wind loading.

So, how does a tall building like Burj Khalifa withstand the wind? It rises 2717 feet into the sky and has remained the world’s tallest building. As the altitude increases, the building should be designed in a manner that it can conquer the wind.

The first thing you’ll note is that the building rises high in stalks. It brings somewhat an odd-looking design that prevents the air from being organized into whirlpools. This also prevents the formation of vortices that stop the tower from moving side to side. But even with such a unique skyscraping engineering design, the building will still sway about two meters at the top.

Another landmark that confuses the wind is the Taipei Tower. It stands a second distant of 1667 feet. Between the 88 and 92nd stories, you’ll find a giant pendulum. It’s designed to battle typhoons and windstorms. It swings gently to balance the tower and ensures the comfort of the occupants.

The New York Citi Group has also employed a unique mechanism to combat the wind. It has a tuned mass damper that is designed to reduce the impact of the wind on the scraper. As the wind pushes the building in one direction, the damper will swing to the other side. What this skyscraper engineering means is, you’re adding a component to deal with the wind rather than the building itself.

The wind specialists and structural engineers work meticulously to alleviate stress and ensure the comfort of occupants.

And just like a guitar string, buildings are inclined to vibrate, so you should ensure the frequency lines out just right. A key goal of skyscraper engineering is to disrupt an organized flow of wind.

If not addressed, strong winds can cause serious structural damage. Another key aspect of skyscraper engineering is that buildings follow the 100-year return rule. This means that the speed of the wind is expected to change once in a century. After the time lapses, designers should increase the strength by 60%.

But despite these measures, strong winds can still cause damage to windowpanes or a myriad of other issues. For instance, a light breeze may feel like a hurricane on the top floors. But if a skyscraper is engineered properly, you don’t expect excessive motions. An occasional creaking is normal.

Shock absorbers for supertalls

A great aspect of skyscraper engineering is the use of dampers. They work like counterweights that help to stabilize the structures. The engineers attach about 300-800 tons of steel to interfere with the local wind patterns. There are two types of dampers:

Generally speaking, a damper consists of a piston and head filled with silicon oil. When the building moves in a horizontal motion, the damper transforms mechanical energy into heat.

With skyscraper engineering, architects use cleaver technologies to mitigate the effect of earthquakes. And as a result, the occupants can come out unharmed. Other tactics include:

Use of pendulum power

This is another unique aspect of engineering that allows you to spend enormous mass at the top of the structure. Each pendulum is tuned to match the vibrational frequency of the building.

For example, the Taipei 101 building uses a pendulum power to mitigate the effects of strong winds and earthquakes. At the heart of the system, there are eight suspended steel cables.

Rocking Core-wall

In many high-rise buildings, you’ll find a core wall construction. The rocking core wall refers to reinforced concrete that runs through the heart of the structure. This kind of construction can withstand earthquakes and strong winds. For extremely tall buildings, the rocking core wall should be 30 feet and can be between 18-30 inches thick.

Carbon fiber wrap

Another aspect of skyscraper engineering is adding base isolation systems. The reinforced fiber plastic wrap mixes carbon fibers with other materials to create a lightweight but incredibly strong structure.

When using this method, the engineers wrap the material on concrete to create an epoxy gap between the material and concrete. You can also create a mummy-wrapped beam that has incredible strength.

The levitating foundation

For many years, engineers have been using base isolation to protect buildings from the effects of an earthquake. This involves floating the building above the foundation.

How concrete is poured

Let’s face it: we haven’t moved beyond steel and concrete in technological advancement. Generally, skyscraper engineering allows a building to support much weight with less material. The truth is, concrete continues to gain massive power due to the unique chemical composition.

Skyscraper engineering ensures that you combine concrete and high-strength steel in different ways. But the most technological advancement is the use of unique designs.

Unlike ordinary concrete, the concrete used in skyscrapers has to be reinforced. For example, the Burj Khalifa building had to take more than 300,000 cubic meters of concrete. A mixture with high comprehensive strength had to be made.

Building a high-rise building requires that you rethink the materials you use. Concrete that is reinforced with microfibers can have massive strength to withstand strong winds.

The elevator conundrum

The traditional elevator can run for a limited 1600 feet because the wire can’t reach higher than that. What this means is that super-tall buildings can take valuable floor space.

Given that many people cannot climb more than a few stairs, the elevator conundrum is an invention of the skyscraper. A key aspect of skyscraper engineering is that the building requires more elevators. This means that there has to be a dedicated area for shaft ways. And this is where a conundrum comes in.

Many tall buildings like the John Hancock Center and the World Trade Center Tower use express elevators. So, engineers can place conundrums on top of each other to save space.

Some buildings like the Petronas Towers have double elevators that allow more people to reach the top. The only downside with double elevators is that all people have to stop when a few want to get to a specific floor.

Without cables being confined in an elevator cabin, you can have a bus system with multiple cabins. And just like airplane cabins, an elevator can be pressurized to help in the transition of higher altitudes. They can also move faster to reduce the waiting time.

Skyscraper engineering continues to be one is one of the greatest achievements in the world.

The Engineering Behind Dielectric Testing

Dielectric Testing on bucket trucks

 

Dielectric testing refers to the process of assessing electrical insulation. When it comes to checking the insulation in mobile homes, you have to test the insulation at a slightly higher voltage compared to the normal voltage. This method of approach makes sure that insulation does not start at a marginal level. With an accurate voltage setting, dielectric testing using direct current (DC) offers the same results as utilizing alternating current (AC). However, DC testing provides better information on performance and safety enhancements.

The objective of dielectric testing

 

Dielectric testing is not a complex process. It does not cause any damage to the materials tested. This simple method corroborates the sufficiency of electrical insulation to withstand temporary power surges. Lightning strikes and short circuits are the major reasons for voltage spikes on power lines. These types of power surges last only for a small duration. That is to say, transient spikes last only under 20 microseconds.

Dielectric testing can also be used to verify whether particular insulation has sufficient performance headroom. This type of verification is needed to make sure that the insulation does not fail due to aging, vibration wear, moisture, and other types of reasons. Depending on the environmental conditions, you need to make the necessary changes to the voltage level used in the dielectric testing. In severe conditions, an increased amount of higher dielectric test voltage needs to be used.

Dielectric testing method

This type of testing is done by applying a high voltage between two conductors that are believed to be electrically insulated from each other. Under normal circumstances, the voltage is kept below 1000V. If there is complete isolation between two conductors, the application of a large voltage variation between two conductors would prevent the current flow between them. So, the insulation is capable of surviving or withstanding the application of a large voltage potential between the conductors. That is exactly why it is known as the dielectric withstand testing. .

Here are the two results that suggest an insulation failure:

1. Excessive flow of current

2. A sudden electric breakdown

Reduced insulation resistance is what causes excessive current flow during the dielectric test. If the insulating material that divides the two conductors has low insulation resistance; you can expect an increased flow of current.

An instant dielectric breakdown also suggests insulation failure. It may occur due to electrical discharge or arcing through the air or through insulation material or its surface.

Learn about the test voltage

You cannot expect proper stressing of the insulation material with reduced dielectric testing voltage. This situation permits insufficient insulation that is unacceptable to pass the test. On the contrary, a very high voltage could damage the insulation material that would have been otherwise sufficient for the application.

For 120 – 240 V alternating current mains wiring, you can use 1000 V and also double the operating voltage. That is to say, if you have 120-V wiring, you can test it with a voltage of 1240 V ac. You need to add 1000 V and two times of 120 V. So, the total is 1240.

What about the duration of dielectric test?

 

For creating the right amount of stress on insulation, one minute has been kept as the standard duration for applying test voltage. The duration of application can be lowered by increasing the test voltage. To accommodate large volume needs, test duration can even be lowered to 1 second by increasing the test voltage by 20%.

Alternating current and direct current

120 Vac is considered as the minimal voltage in the USA. The frequency of voltage is 60 Hz. The waveform of voltage is sinusoidal. 120 Volts is the RMS (Root-Mean-Square) value of the voltage. The RMS value of an AC voltage offers an equivalent to the DC voltage heating value. For example; applying an AC voltage of 120 RMS to a resistor and applying 120 V DC would deliver the same heat output.

An overview of test voltages

What is the ultimate purpose of dielectric testing? A dielectric test exerts stress on the insulation for a small period to find out that it doesn’t fail. A 60-Hz ac voltage testing is done basically because of the convenience. To get the dielectric testing done, you can use a transformer with a high-voltage secondary winding. It produces an increased voltage required to perform this type of test.

It is hard for a 60-Hz ac test voltage to simulate real events better than a dc test voltage. You may find increased voltage spikes on the 120-V ac mains. These surges are not alternating current, but momentary voltage transients with a particular duration that is gauged in milliseconds or microseconds.

When it comes to choosing between AC and DC voltage for testing, you have to assess the goal of the test. As the voltage gets higher, you need to apply an increased amount of stress to the insulation.

The voltage peak of an AC test voltage of 1000 V RMS is 1414 V. Hence, if you use a dc test voltage, you must elevate the test voltage to 1414 V DC to create a similar amount of stress on the insulation.

Several national and international testing and standards writing organizations approve the difference in test voltage for DC compared to test voltage for AC. Some of these organizations and agencies are:

 

The American National Standards Institute

Underwriters Laboratories

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Factory Mutual Corp.

International Electrotechnical Commission.

Dielectric Breakdown Evaluation

At the peak of the AC waveform, the electrical stress on the insulation stays at the highest levels. So, dielectric breakdown takes place at the peak of an AC test voltage. The pace at which electric breakdown occurs is incredibly fast. Since this type of abrupt breakdown takes place at the peak voltage of the AC waveform, you can find both AC and DC voltages precisely the same. Further, the durability of the AC waveform peak voltage is higher than the breakdown process.

Pros and cons of dielectric testing

In the past, it has been hard to generate DC test voltages. This situation has led to the need for more efficient, expensive, and advanced test equipment. This disadvantage has been resolved to a great extent by the performance enhancements and safety improvements achieved from utilizing DC test voltages.

Let us throw light on some extra background information to explain the benefits of dielectric testing better. When you apply a voltage difference between two conductors that are divided by an insulator, an electric charge is created. The electric charge produced stays proportional to the capacitance between the conductors and applied voltage. We can put this theory into a formula. Let us use Q to represent charge and V to denote voltage. C can be used for capacitance. Then, you can represent the mathematical relationship between charge, voltage, and capacitance as Q = C x V.

When it comes to practical applications, the capacitance can subsist because of discrete capacitors. However, the capacitance is formed unintentionally when two conductors with a difference in voltages are kept together closely. You can come across this type of capacitance in multi-conductor electrical wiring, transformers, and electric motors. The charge changes with the variations in the voltage. For example; if the voltage oscillates between positive and negative directions, the charge will repeat the same movements.

Another basic concept you need to be aware of is that whenever voltage changes take place, electric current flows through a capacitor. The logic is simple. When there is a voltage increase across a capacitor, the quantity of charge also goes up. Electric current is basically a measurement of the number of changes in charge that occur over a while. The letter I’ is used to represent current. Ampere is the unit to measure current. Coulombs is the unit used to measure the quantity of charge Q. What is 1 ampere of current? It refers to a charge flow of 1 coulomb per second.

When you blend the concept of current and capacitance, you can arrive at the following conclusions:

A changing charge is generated by a changing voltage. Changing charge refers to electric current flow. Thus, whenever voltage changes occur, the current starts to flow between two conductors. Due to the capacitance between the conductors, the current flow can take place even when they are divided by an insulator. As the capacitance between the two conductors increases, the current flow also increases.

When dielectric testing is done using AC voltage, there will be an electric current flow between the two points being examined. You cannot expect this current to represent a failing test result due to a reduced insulation resistance. So an AC dielectric tester should make up for this permissible current flow.

How to achieve this task? The easiest way to do this is to permit the tester to discover a considerable quantity of current without showing an additional current failure. If you use the same dielectric tester device to test multiple products, you have to set the current limit set point to accommodate the equipment with increased capacitance. That is to say, you should desensitize the dielectric testing device to help it ignore current levels.

This method of approach can generate two dangerous issues. A desensitized AC dielectric tester cannot identify the difference between 5 and 15 mA. What would happen if a testing circuit has a capacitance between two conductors that generate 5 mA to flow in standard conditions while performing the test? If you check a device with faulty insulation that permits 300% of the standard quantity of current flow (15 mA), the desensitized dielectric testing device would find it as an acceptable test result.

A desensitized AC dielectric tester may send down a dangerous level of current to the human body without shutting down. This situation can seriously injure or kill the operator. When you do dielectric tests with a dc test voltage, the electric current flow occurs only when the voltage shoots up from 0 V to the highest test voltage. In this situation, the voltage shoots up within 1 or 2 seconds and the current flow stays at minimal levels. On the other hand, an AC test voltage oscillates between positive peaks to negative peaks 60 times per second.

Remember that the sudden increase in a DC test voltage occurs over a timeframe of 2 seconds. So, it creates only 1/120 or less than 1% of the current flow of an AC test voltage. When the DC voltage goes up to the final test level, the current inevitably stops completely. The quantity of current flowing during a DC dielectric test is trivial irrespective of the capacitance amount that exists in the device under test.

When you make a comparison between AC and DC dielectric testing, you can associate several benefits with the latter. The major benefits can be summarized as follows:

– The maximum permissible test current can be adjusted to a very convenient low level such as 1 mA.

– The DC dielectric testing device activates a shutoff mode when it finds that more than 1 mA of current flowing during the test.

– With a highly sensitive test method, A DC dielectric tester helps the operator detect even marginal constructions that an AC tester would often fail to notice.

– Since DC tester offers the best protection for the operator with lower test-current levels.

A few nanoseconds are enough for a dielectric breakdown. An altering 60-Hz AC voltage becomes an un-altering DC voltage instantly. Both AC and DC dielectric testing is good enough to verify the insulation suitability if the peak voltages of these two withstand tests remain the same. To keep the peak voltages at the same levels, the DC voltage utilized in dielectric testing should be 1.414 times higher than the AC RMS voltage used.

If you compare these two dialectical testing methods, you can find the DC testing method more advantageous. Because of the total insulation failure, both these testing methods offer an equivalent level of breakdown identification. Nevertheless, the improved precision of DC leakage-current detection identifies even marginal insulation systems. You can also expect enhanced safety of the operator with DC dielectric testing.

 

The Biggest Engineering Projects of Palm Beach, FL in the last Decade

Open Shore Palm Beach Engineering

Overview

Palm Beach, Florida has grown in leaps and bounds over the years. It has become an ideal destination for students, business people, retirees, and tourists. As a matter of fact, the City of Palm Beach is investing in big projects, not just in business, but also in leisure. The main aim is to address the business and resident needs of the people of Palm Beach and to prepare for the future growth of the area.

This article identifies the major engineering milestones in Palm Beach, Florida.

The Biggest Engineering Projects of Palm Beach, FL in the last decade

The Clematis Streetscape project is a major engineering project in Palm Beach which aims at Clematis Street, one of the most iconic streets in the city. In order to start and complete this project, the city has engaged the visionary leadership of Dover, Kohl & Partners, an urban planning company. Clematis Street has been the hub of business district, West Palm Beach.

Members of the public have been given an opportunity to air their opinion of how the project should look like, and these opinions will be considered as much. It is an ideal choice for business, leisure, and relaxation. It is a street which has appreciated other cultures including Mexican, Italian, and Sushi cultures.

The South Ocean project was completed in 2019. Led by Joseph A. McMillan and Jay Phillip Parker, the project was one of the most ambitious in West Palm Beach boasting a beach residential front. The project was executed by DDG which has shown expertise and experience in carrying out similar projects over the years.

DDG is an intellectual and economic capital company which has developed unique designs in the construction industry. With offices in New York, California, and Florida, DDG boasts a highly competent team of professionals derived from multiple disciplines including asset management, the hospitality industry, development, and design.

The 3550 project contains 30 condominium residences which are facing the oceanfront. The property offers a perfect combination of privacy, amenities, location, and space. The classic property aims at appreciate the unique beauty of the surrounding. Due to the popularity of the homes, it did not take long for the company to look for buyers.

The Open Shore Project

The Open Shore project was conceived as a response to the many challenges faced by the people of West Palm Beach. The project aimed at triggering the much-needed change, celebrating the public space, and appreciating West Palm Beach and the potential that the city has. It also aimed at maximizing the potential of the city for optimal city performance based on metrics such as livability.

The Open Shore Project made an ambitious effort to re-imagine the downturn and its immense opportunities. As a young city, the city is experiencing a large retirement community, a young population as well as a high population of blacks and Hispanics. In short, there is a need to develop social amenities which serve the emerging population, and this is where the Open Shore Project comes in. There had to be a balance in managing the resources of the city in order to retain, and indeed, improve the quality of life among the residents.

The Open Shore Project goes beyond meeting the residential needs of the community and encourages social inclusion and social interaction. It is a project that has collected data and information that is going to respond to future growth as well as adaption. Indeed, the residential factors play a critical role in enhancing physical and mental health.

Open Shore looks at the future of West Palm Beach and sees an optimistic and bright future. The vision sees a city which is going to be open and accessible to all visitors. In addition to that, Open Shore envisions a city which will be bustling with diverse people as well as activities any time of the year. Moreover, the city is going to be healthy and comfortable for everyone who wants to visit, both the young people and the elderly people alike.

Open Shore project could as well have been a research project. It analyzed six local factors which determine the quality of life in West Palm Beach and these include the following: mobility, health, society, climate, activity, and sites.

Open Shore Project has identified the waterfront as having a major engineering potential. However, if it is to be utilized in an optimal way, then there ought to be major and professional engineering projects.

The Society of the Four Arts Palm Beach Engineering

Society of the Four Arts

Located in Palm Beach, the Society of the Four Arts offers a high quality and unique cultural exploration of Palm Beach. The campus boasts of unique engineering innovation and features including the following:

-Beautiful sculptures

-A library

-Botanical gardens

-State of the art education facility

In the course of the history of the Society of Four Arts, there was a major problem about parking which inconvenienced the residents in a big way. What the management did was to seek the expert advice of WGI, a highly reputable engineering company. What WGI did was to carry out a comprehensive and comprehensive modification of the site in order to eliminate the persisting parking problems. The engineering used the space in the green mall area in order to offer parking, and at the same time retain the beauty of the area.

WGI carried out the final plans of the site, do site data calculations, and liaise with the conversation commission as well as site council. The engineering company noted that there were existing site constrains, and going around such challenges required being creative. Of particular concern was how to solve the parking problems of the area, and at the same time retain its aesthetics for many years to come.

Spanish River Tunnels

The Spanish River Tunnels is another project by WGI IN Palm Beach, Florida. WGI was called upon in order to inspect the damage that was done on the tunnels. Consequently, WGI came up with plans and specifications on how to carry out a major repair. The engineering company acted on behalf of the city in order to repair the tunnels, offer a repair methodology, and estimate the quantities that are required.

La Follia, West Palm Beach

La Follia is one of the most expensive homes in Florida and in escrow with a top Palm Beach Accountant. The home is a unique engineering project boasting an Italian resistance style. The home includes the following: cabana, a pool, fruit orchards, a fitness center, lush gardens, and a private boat dock.

SFWMD engineering

The SFWMD project

The SFWMD project was carried out by ARCADIS, an international consulting and engineering company. The company has been recognized as an expert when it comes to issues of water management, and it was not surprising that the engineering company was able to secure the contract.

The main roles and responsibilities in this project included and not limited to the following:

-Carrying out the appropriate inspections

-Environmental permitting

-Water supply

-Enhancing the quality of the water

-Protection from natural disasters

-Visiting the site every day

It is the same company, ARCADIS, which was entrusted with in the protection as well as the restoration of the Florida Everglades ecosystem. This multi-million contract had a number of core mandates including construction of other storm water treatment areas as well as construction of other follow equalization basins.

Everglades, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is home to a number of endangered species, and over the years, the ecosystem has reduced to almost half due to human encroachment, population growth, agricultural expansion, and commercial and residential development.

Why Concentrate on Best Practices in Engineering

There are several advantages with concentrating on best practices in best practices that will lead to a big engineering project. To start with, such a design carries a strong aesthetic effect as well as an aura of authority and pride. To the investors, they have to stand out in the market by offering something unique. By investing in a big engineering project, they get buyers and tenants fast. To the business owners, they attract clients easily because customers like visiting attractive places for purchasing or window shopping.

Best engineering projects concentrate on smart growth as well as sustainability in their endeavours. In connection to this, environmental concerns that residents and business have are addressed.

In the US, land is becoming more and more expensive as the years go by. This is not just a phenomenon in the US, in places such as Seoul and Hong Kong, buying a piece of land or a building is too expensive. Engineers try to solve this problem by building unique designs which take less space.

Another significance with investing in a big engineering project is that old buildings can be demolished. Old buildings are generally unsightly, and can be dangerous to the residents. Mostly, children can be at risk from old buildings.

Investing in a big engineering project is part and parcel of improving the living standards of a country. It is about improving the quality of life and the experiences that people have von a certain country. The future generation greatly benefits from the decisions that the current generation makes.

In some cases, though a few of them, carrying out a big engineering project could be a matter of law. The government looks at the potential growth of a certain area and recommends that small engineering projects should be discouraged due to poor scalability rate. It is therefore important that such considerations are put in place in order to follow the government regulations and recommendations.

The modern trend in engineering is to go green and to help in the mitigation of climate change. In other words, the best engineering projects appreciate innovation, going green, and investing in product and services which do not contribute to the degradation of the environment. This is not just the right thing to do, but rather, it is a noble thing to do too.

The advantage with Florida is its favorable weather all the year round. This means that the construction projects can be under-taken and executed without getting worried over harsh climatic conditions which can make it difficult to provide a safe environment for construction.

Some states in the US face big challenges when it comes to weather and the construction industry. For example, carrying out any construction when it is snowing comes with challenges such as visibility. It is therefore important that such factors are put into consideration before embarking on any major engineering project.

Challenges

Whereas big engineering projects have positive and optimal outcomes, they are not without their fair share of challenges. The biggest challenge that big engineering projects face is the pressure that comes from environmentalists. Some environmentalists view constant development as a challenge to the status quo and a threat to the environment. In some cases, they can initiate social activism against development.

Residents cry foul over the disruption that is created by big construction projects. For example, residents cry foul over the traffic jam that is created by mega engineering projects. Big engineering projects can be unsafe more so to school-going and young children.

Therefore, engineers should start planning early when they have a project that is going to be carried out. Planning early means that the engineering company can solve any problem with the residents. As an engineer, you cannot force the locals to accept development. Rather, you can concentrate on winning their hearts and minds.

As you try to convince the locals to accept the changes, show what you are doing with action. For example, you could state the safety measures that you are going to put in place. This will make your case more acceptable to the residents and make your work easier.

Conclusion

In the near future, West Palm Beach will have more major engineering projects as the needs of the city continue to grow. As a strategic business owner and investor, you need to position yourself to take advantage of such up-coming opportunities. Overall, West Palm Beach will continue benefiting from major engineering projects.